Sunday, August 18, 2019

Ben & Jerrys Homemade Ice Cream - Marketing Stratgies :: GCSE Business Marketing Coursework Essays

Ben & Jerrys was experiencing a steady growth within their sales figures from 1990 to 1993. However, In March 1994, Cost of Sales increased approximately $9.6 million or 9.5% over the same period in 1993, and the overall gross profit as a percentage of net sales decreased from 28.6% in 1993 to 26.2% in 1994. This loss might have been a result of several reasons, such as high administration and selling costs, a negative impact of inventory management, and start up costs associated with certain flavours of the new Smooth, No Chunks ice cream line. Ben & Jerrys selling, general and administrative expenses increased approximately 28% to $36.3 million in 1994 from $28.3 million in 1993 and increased as a percentage of net sales to 24.4% in 1994 from 20.2% in 1993. This increase might reflect the increase in marketing and selling expenses and the increase in the companys administrative infrastructure. Ben & Jerrys loss was not solely due to their employee orientated approach, but they appeared to have taken out a vast amount of capital lease in their aim to automate their production to keep up with the intense competition. As reflected in the balance sheet, Ben & Jerrys had reinvested huge amounts of property and equipment in 1994 increasing their long-term debts by almost 45% in 1993. Alternatives available to the consumer now, and in the foreseeable future Haagen Dazs is currently the main competitor in the concentrated market place for super premium ice cream. Substitutes are however available. There are other ice creams not in the super premium category. To an extent, these are real competitors. However for the market B&J caters for {the up market 25-40s with a high disposable income} their strategies should not have a great impact on B&J. The frozen yogurt lines which B&J now provides, has a number of direct competitors to deal with. Dealing with other substitutes is not that simple. Expensive (or not) chocolate, cakes, croissants and other post meal consumables are realistic options for the consumer. Ferrara Rocha will assure you that their product is the perfect accompaniment to any meal. B&J need to be wary of this. How he/she makes the choice for ice cream (as opposed to chocolate etc.) and then super premium (as opposed to premium or ordinary) and then B&J (as opposed to Haagen Dazs etc.) is essential. [See section 3.21 Research] The possibility of a rival ceasing B&Js place as no.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Social and Political Themes in the Movie Milk

Extra Credit Assignment MILK 1. What are the main themes, politically and socially, that are portrayed in the film? Milk is a biographical film based on the triumphs and struggles of Harvey Milk. He was a gay rights activist and the first openly gay elected official in California. Socially, the film addresses the discrimination homosexuals faced on a daily basis. â€Å"(T)he normal majority†, as labeled by Anita Bryant, inflicted prejudice upon the homosexual minority. â€Å"The Castro†, the name of a street in an area often inhabited by homosexual bars and such places, portrays the clan like social groupings.The entire neighborhood however was not friendly. A fellow merchant on Castro Street refused to allow Milk to join the Merchant’s Association and even threatened to call the police and have his business license revoked on no legal grounds. Homosexuals were often portrayed as social deviants and often faced severe police brutality. The film addresses many pol itical issues, as it is centered on the gay rights movement. Milk faces multiple loses at the voting polls before making it as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. The quote, â€Å"I am not a candidate, I am part of a movement. Related article: Maru ThemesThe movement is the candidate†, Milk said and that resonated with me. In the face of defeat he often said that its not only about winning, it’s about making a statement and getting the attention needed for change. Milk just wanted fair and equal representation, he didn’t necessarily have to be the one to be in office. 2. Discuss the overall significance of the events portrayed in the film and how they relate to changes in American society. In the film, Harvey Milk stated, â€Å"almost everything was done with an eye on the gay movement†. He compared it to the civil rights movement of the African Americans.He said that they had a leader and a successful movement and it was time for homosexuals to have the same. Like other civil rights movements, the gay rights movement created legal and social reform. It brought awareness to inequality among equal beings. Milk also stated that he didn’t want to limit himself to gay rights. He also wanted to include blacks, Asians, and the disabled in a human rights movement. 3. Choose 2 scenes from the film and discuss what is important about them. I was very bothered by the comments Anita Bryant made during a televised speech that was shown in the film.She was an orange juice sales woman who was working to repeal laws that protect homosexual human rights; specifically in employment and housing. She described homosexuality as â€Å"tearing down the foundation of the family unit† and compared gays to prostitutes and thieves. She tried to convince the public that the traditional family was being threatened and that practicing or accepting homosexuality was blasphemy. Although the scenes of Harvey Milk recording his voice were split up throughout the film, I felt it to be the most powerful.Not only does he address the substantial probability of being assassinated, he does so calmly and courageously. He stated that, â€Å"a gay activist is the target for someone w ho is insecure†. As he did throughout his encounters with all kinds of people, he also stated that he often broke the tension when giving a speech to mostly straight men by telling a joke. Milk accomplished a lot for the gay rights movement, one that is still fighting today, and he did so with integrity, hard work, and sporadic humor. 4. What did you like best/ and or least about the film? What I liked best about the film was Milk’s personal character.He was stubborn and kind at the same time. He also exudes his kindness in both his personal relationships and political affairs. His angry and determined moments on the campaign were balanced out by his romanticism in his personal life. 5. What did you learn that you did not previously know about the time period of the film? I was shocked to learn of the police brutality during this time period. In the very beginning of the film, as the credits are running, newspaper headlines are shown in the background. The articles were about people being arrested for absurd charges. For example, a bartender was arrested for serving alcohol to homosexuals.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Too Much Delegation In Nissan

Good communication skills can help a manager successfully delegate responsibility to subordinates. It is a process of good thing that spreads the workload, rewards subordinates with decision making power, develop subordinates capabilities and allow decision to be made. By practicing delegation process, an organization can do achieve their set of goal. Nissan, a renowned Japanese automaker is the best example of practicing delegation. From the case study â€Å"Too much delegation at Nissan†, we have got some findings that how Carlos Ghosn, CEO of Nissan, did apply to get success by practicing delegation.Question 1: What are some advantages that Carlos Ghosn can expect to obtain from retaining decision-making authority at the CEO level? What are some potential pitfalls that he must be aware of? Answer : Carlos Ghosn, CEO of Nissan joined in 1999. Nissan, Japanese automakers vehicle that is 44% own of second largest car company in Japan namely Renault. Before joining Carlos, Niss an was near bankruptcy. They had unappealing models, low market share and declining profitability. At this crucial moment, Carlos took responsibility in Nissan to safe its sink.Skilled Carlos think â€Å"what people think about him and which approach should apply? †. He did not apply traditional approach even he did not convince the people. Ghosn laid off employees who acted as advisors but had no operational authority. He consulted his subordinates, then made decision own. He hired hot designer from rival firms and gave them authority over new product development resulting slew of innovative, award winning designs such as the Xterra and the updated stylish new altima.As a CEO, Carlos can expect to obtain from his subordinates- To get more work following a team based work – To help him burden by doing major portion of the organizations work. – Designer will do provide high range car design. – To solve any existing problem and innovate of new idea.  œ Subordinates will operate and monitor all about operational activities. As Carlos, got all type of supported from his subordinates, He did able to revive new model. Although he had aware of some pit falls. – Actually, he did follow boldness and risky approach where as all other Nissan Manager followed Caution and slowness.As cost cutting approach had lead to success all other divisions of Renault, Carlos did reduces expenses. – And most important his hidden inspiration. He inspired the designer hired from china for their special design. Upon his successful guide and delegation, Nissan profits and sales are up substantially. With eight new models in 2003 and four more in 2004. Nissan has the potential to surpass Toyota currently number one automaker in Japan and the innovation is continue. Question 2: Give at least three example of decisions that can be most effectively made with a decentralized process.Give at least three examples of decisions that can be most effect ively made with a decentralized process. Do not use example from the case above. Explain your choices. Answer : Decentralization and its example: Decentralization refers that, decision making is not only restricted to top management. Decision are also made by lower level employees because they are more towards the action of performance. They can quickly solve the problem and more people are involved in giving decision. Decentralization make employees feel that organization is trusting on them and giving right to make decision.Example 1: As the company X is suffering from loss for two years, the employee concluded that as the company is closed for 5 to 6 days per month in a year due to strikes in country, productivity is low. So to achieve the productivity, employee will do over time. Example 2: Franchise company like KFC, control most product development and marketing strategy at the top, but they give franchise owners a great deal of independence in running their individual stores. Franchise owners make staffing decisions, decisions on hours of operation and compensation decisions completely on their own.Example 3: Sainsbury`s, the second largest retail shop in across the UK, the CEO Justin King have given their store manager considerably more discretion on what merchandise to stock in their store. Today in modern world, most organization is following decentralization. It makes organization more flexible and responsive. Centralization and its example: Centralization refers that decision making in the organization can be done by only top management. It is the formal authority that top management will give decisions which will be followed by everyone without any changes.When only top managers take decision without any option of lower level employees, the organization is centralized. In simple word, top manager has right to take decision without any view of lower level of manager is called centralization. Example 1: Top management of Company X decided that the m edical facility of the employees will not be provided for six month because the company is suffering from loss for two years. Example 2: A manager of a trucking company makes all operational decisions, sending information to the individual drivers through dispatches.Example 3: The central bank of Bangladesh monitoring and evaluating all other govt. owned bank and private bank in Bangladesh. They published rules and regulation for other bank and every bank followed this rules. Those decision are taken by only top management without any recommendation of lower level employee. Question 3: Japanese management system depends on high specialization. Dose a high level of specialization typically lead to decentralization? Why or Why not?Answer: The Japanese management system depends on high specialization and this lead  to decentralization. We know that, specialization typically related with decentralization. Specialization is the degree to which the overall task of the organization is br oken down and divided into smaller component part where as the decentralization is the process of systematically delegating power and authority through the organization to middle and lower level organization.That means, when specialization follow its every steps like rotation, enrichment, enlargement etc. every employees got some power to achieve the selected target i.e. some systematic delegation has been practiced . An example like Pin factory, improved its productivity using specialization. One man drew the wire, another straight tended, a third cut it and a fourth ground the point and so on and thus on ten man produces 48,000 pin in a day, where as a man alone could produce 20 pin per days. Here, we see that the systematic delegation has been followed in every lower level employee to do work independently as well as the employee did team work that completely reflected decentralization process.From the case study we have known that, all most all business firms in Japan, are tradi tionally team based structure and a consensus approach to decision making which clearly reflected decentralization. The management system in Japan allows a lot of participation from employees at all levels. The management expertise understand the consumer, understand the people they are dealing with and they understand the government and they need in the market place. Based on need they hire high ranking manager who guide the employee as well as give them power to achieve target and they are getting success.The above description of specialization and decentralization, it is clear that both are the same pattern and interrelated. For success in any business not only in Japan but in all across in the world it is essential to follow decentralization a well as specialization. I am strongly agree that high level of specialization lead to dencetralization. —- Question 1: What are some advantages that Carlos Ghosn can expect to obtain from retaining decision-making authority at the C EO level? What are some potential pitfalls that he must be aware of? Answer :Nissan, Japanese automakers vehicle that is 44% own of second largest car company in Japan namely Renault. Before joining Carlos, Nissan was near bankruptcy. They had unappealing models, low market share and declining profitability. At this crucial moment, Carlos took responsibility in Nissan to safe its sink. Ghosn laid off employees who acted as advisors but had no operational authority. He consulted his subordinates, then made decision own. He hired hot designer from rival firms and gave them authority over new product development resulting slew of innovative, award winning designs such as the Xterra and the updated stylish new altima.As a CEO, Carlos can expect to obtain from his subordinates- To solve any existing problem and innovate of new idea. – Subordinates will operate and monitor all about operational activities. – To get more work following a team based work – To help him b urden by doing major portion of the organizations work. – Designer will do provide high range car design. As Carlos, got all type of supported from his subordinates, He did able to revive new model. Although he had aware of some pit falls. – Actually, he did follow boldness and risky approach where as all other Nissan Manager followed Caution and slowness.As cost cutting approach had lead to success all other divisions of Renault, Carlos did reduces expenses. And most important his hidden inspiration. He inspired the designer hired from china for their special design. Question 2: Give at least three example of decisions that can be most effectively made with a decentralized process. Give at least three examples of decisions that can be most effectively made with a decentralized process. Do not use example from the case above. Explain your choices. Answer :Decentralization: Decentralization is the process of systematically retaining power and authority throughout the or ganization to middle and lower level manager. They can quickly solve the problem and more people are involved in giving decision. Decentralization make employees feel that organization is trusting on them and giving right to make decision. Example 1. As the company X is suffering from loss for two years, the employee concluded that as the company is closed for 5 to 6 days per month in a year due to strikes in country, productivity is low.So to achieve the productivity, employee will do over time. 2. Franchise company like Pizza Hurt, control most product development and marketing strategy at the top, but they give franchise owners a great deal of independence in running their individual stores. Franchise owners make staffing decisions, decisions on hours of operation and compensation decisions completely on their own. 3. Wal-Mart the largest retail shop in across the USA, The higher authority have given their store manager considerably more discretion on what merchandise to stock in their store.Centralization: Centralization is the process of systematically retaining power and authority in the hand of higher level manager. When only top managers take decision without any option of lower level employees, the organization is centralized. In simple word, top manager has right to take decision without any view of lower level of manager is called centralization. Example 1. Top management of Company X decided that the medical facility of the employees will not be provided for six month because the company is suffering from loss for two years. 2.A manager of a trucking company makes all operational decisions, sending information to the individual drivers through dispatches. 3. The central bank of Bangladesh monitoring and evaluating all other govt. owned bank and private bank in Bangladesh. They published rules and regulation for other bank and every bank followed this rules. Question 3: Japanese management system depends on high specialization. Dose a high level of specialization typically lead to decentralization? Why or Why not? Answer : The Japanese management system depends on high specialization and this lead to decentralization.We know that, specialization typically related with decentralization. Specialization is the degree to which the overall task of the organization is broken down and divided into smaller component part where as the decentralization is the process of systematically delegating power and authority through the organization to middle and lower level organization. That means, when specialization follow its every steps like rotation, enrichment, enlargement etc. every employees got some power to achieve the selected target. An example like Pin factory, improved its productivity using specialization.One man drew the wire, another straight tended, a third cut it and a fourth ground the point and so on and thus on ten man produces 48,000 pin in a day, where as a man alone could produce 20 pin per days. Here, we see that every lower level employee had some power and authority to do work independently as well as the employee did team work that completely reflected decentralization process. From the case study we have known that, all most all business firms in Japan, are traditionally team based structure and a consensus approach to decision making which clearly reflected decentralization.The management system in Japan allows a lot of participation from employees at all levels. The management expertise understand the consumer, understand the people they are dealing with and they understand the government and they need in the market place. Based on need they hire high ranking manager who guide the employee as well as give them power to achieve target and they are getting success. I am strongly agree that high level of specialization lead to decentralization.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Research science fiction Essay

During the summer I met up with Harinder to start building our website and to get an idea of what it would include and look like. We decided to use the program Dream Weaver since it was more flexible compared to word or Frontpage and it had many features that we could use for our website, such as different backgrounds and texts. Dream weaver enabled us to use Flash MX which has much more effective graphics which we couldn’t get on Front Page such as the flash buttons and 3-d backgrounds all to make our website suit the Sc-Fi theme. We targeted our audience immediately by choosing the theme Science Fiction which appeals to teen and young adult males. We kept the audience involved furthermore by the type of language we chose to use which wasn’t too complicated yet not too patronising. The set up of the page was kept colourful, yet formal, by not having the hyperlinks and pictures all over the page. It would therefore appeal to the younger and older generations of our audience. We also targeted the audience by adding more features to our website like voting and a guest book so they feel welcome and give feed back on what they thought of our website. The strengths and weaknesses of our production are fairly clear. Some of the strengths are that it appeals to a wide range of audiences which means that more people are attracted to our website and it would be popular. Another strength would be the different kinds of features that make up our website, from the different types of flash buttons to the backgrounds, wallpapers and pictures. The weaknesses of our website include the appearance of the homepage; it looks too cluttered at the top then too empty at the bottom. The colours don’t match especially with the different coloured buttons. Another weakness would be that on a page like the picture page all of the links are down on one side of the page and the rest of the page looks empty. We could have avoided this problem by putting more pictures and links on the page. One more weakness I could pick out would probably be that it takes quite a long time to load up the site. This could be put down to the fact that there is a lot of links and features on our webpage which slows down the connection and makes it harder for the computer to find the proxy settings. The responses from our target audience were good. We asked people between the ages of 15-30 years of age what they thought of our website. We got some good responses especially from the younger members of our audiences, such as the layout of the website and the features is good quality. They did offer some improvements, such as it needed more information put into the site. The point came up again that the home page was too cluttered and looked over crowded. The older generation of our audience also thought the site was very effective. Some proposed improvements were that we needed to take more care when writing the movie reviews since there was a lot of spelling mistakes. Also that some of the other pages seemed empty with only a few links on them. It was proposed we should have either not made a links page for the pictures page or made more links and pictures. Another improvement suggested that we should have made our website even more formal if we wanted to aim at a wider range of 25 year olds upward, by not having the colourful buttons or backgrounds but having them black and white. I feel I learnt that we needed to have deadlines between ourselves to get certain things finished and then move on to the next thing instead of going back and finishing off pictures or reviews. You need to have people in your group that you can rely on to have work finished and handed in. Appendix 1. Google – Search Engine 2. Science Fiction Websites- * Sci-fi.com * Sciencefic.com * Science Fiction Movie Reviews Pages * Science Fiction Picture Pages 3. Ask- Search Engine 4. Lycos- Search Engine

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Easy Scholarships for International Students

Easy Scholarships for International StudentsOn this post we will do our best to find some great opportunities for Easy Scholarships for International Students that they can utilize. We will continue to add to this page, so be sure to check it out again. The United States is one of the prime destinations for students who are looking to benefit from a top notch and widely recognized international education. Being a student in USA, you are limited to very few scholarship options. To help you, we have collected information from several resources to come up with a list of Easy Scholarships 2017 for students in the USA as well as few scholarship opportunities granted by US government and institutions.Easy Scholarships for International Students – By the GovernmentForeign Fulbright Student Program The Fulbright Foreign Student Program enables graduate students, young professionals and artists from abroad to study and conduct research in the United States. The Fulbright Foreign Student Program operates in more than 155 countries worldwide. Approximately 4,000 foreign students receive Fulbright scholarships each year. Humphrey Fellowship Program The Humphrey Fellowship Program is for experienced professionals interested in strengthening their leadership skills through a mutual exchange of knowledge and understanding about issues of common concern in the U.S. and Fellows’ home countries. As a non-degree program, the Fellowship offers valuable opportunities for professional development through selected university courses, attending conferences, networking, and practical work experiences.Easy Scholarships for International Students by US Colleges and Universities American University Scholarships American University (AU) awards a limited number of generous partial merit scholarships. American University’s merit awards for international students are partial, not full, scholarships. They are highly competitive and based on a combination of outstanding academic achievement, excellent communication skills in English, leadership, volunteerism, and community service. AU Emerging Global Leader Scholarship Program The AU EGL scholarship covers all billable AU expenses (full tuition, room and board) for one international student who will need a visa (preferably an F-1 or J-1 student visa) to study in the United States. The scholarship does not cover non-billable expenses such as mandatory health insurance, books, airline tickets and miscellaneous expenses (approximately U.S.$4,000 per year). Amherst College Scholarships The award is sometimes called an â€Å"aid package† because it may include both self-help (employment) and gift aid (scholarships and grants). Students with lower financial need will be offered self-help. Students with greater need will be offered a combination of self-help and gift aid. Amherst College has replace all initially packaged, need based student loans with grant assistance and also offers $2,000 in an employment opportunity. Come back soon as we will continue to add to this page†¦ If you need help writing an Essay, feel free to contact us and check out our 6000+ free resources

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

The institutional gaze and Disciplining Research Paper

The institutional gaze and Disciplining - Research Paper Example ern their remit and conduct, such hospitals or prisons, while others have more implicit rules, which we perceive as conventions or habits, such as theatre going or sports fandom. Most of the time people unconsciously abide by the rules set in these institutions, or willingly submit to the rules that they can clearly see, and this compliance is regarded by the majority as â€Å"normal† behaviour, while those who do not display compliance are labelled in some way â€Å"sick†, â€Å"abnormal†, â€Å"deviant† or even â€Å"criminal†. Throughout the twentieth century scholars in different disciplines began to unpick this dynamic and look for ways to explore what is going on here, why it is happening, and how these patterns are created and maintained. It was recognised by linguists that many of these issues are expressed in the way that people and organisations communicate with each other. A method called â€Å"discourse analysis† was developed in the field of linguistics which allows close examination of individual pieces of communication between people, whether in daily speech, in writing or in television programmes, instruction leaflets or any other context. This method provides â€Å"rather powerful, while subtle and precise, insights† and allows us to â€Å"witness the realization of the macrosociological patterns that characterize our society† (Van Dijk, 185, 7). In this paper we shall use a discourse analysis approach to investigate a portion of communications from the field of healthcare : the â€Å"Smoke Free† website from the UK National Health Service. In particular we shall look at how participants are recruited into this programme, how the programme sets behaviour codes, monitors the individuals, and keeps records on them. Close analysis of the actual communications will only take us so far, however, and as Van Dijk realised, there are also â€Å"macrosocial† factors to consider. One of the most influential scholars in this, as in other fields, has been Michael

Monday, August 12, 2019

Cultural Experience Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cultural Experience - Essay Example It surely was a very different experience for me. I usually don’t get to see males having sexual feelings for each other and that too in full public view. However the gay club didn’t have any restrictions whatsoever and men were allowed to touch each others’ private parts, commit into sexual arousal activities, make-out and so on. The experience taught me that like lesbians have their own rights, gays have theirs too. And they experienced it solely within the domains of the gay clubs that have opened within the different city centers. As far as cultural dynamics are concerned, I learned that those actions and behaviors on the part of the gays were not accepted far and wide. Their actions rested solely within the realms of the gay club. When they stepped out of it, they were ordinary men who would keep a distance from other men. Thus the cultural taboo-ness of the whole saga made it even more appealing. It was a double standards situation happening right in front of me, one set of rules inside the gay club and another one, outside it. The otherness of the event made it very interesting in entirety. The otherness stemmed from the fact that I had never seen such a thing taking place in my entire life. The otherness also came about when I didn’t get to see any women in the gay club, which once again was understandable and a sheer lack of knowledge on my part. But what was really bizarre was the fact that these gays enjoyed the company of one another in explicit ways and made sure all around them knew what they were doing. As a culturally responsive helper, I gained quite a few insights. I learned that it is a taboo within any society to have gay and lesbian relationships but these run deep within any country of the world. There are separate places fixed for such activities where no limitations are bound on the gays. I also learned that everything has its limits and such activities might be considered